josé francisco de san martín y matorras (25 february 1778 - 17 august 1850), known simply as josé de san martín (spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse ðe san maɾˈtin] (about this soundlisten)) or el libertador of argentina, chile and peru, was a spanish-argentine general and the prime leader of the southern and central parts of south america's successful struggle for independence from the spanish empire who served as the protector of peru. born in yapeyú, corrientes, in modern-day argentina, he left his mother country at the early age of seven to study in málaga, spain.
in 1808, after taking part in the peninsular war against france, san martín contacted south american supporters of independence from spain. in 1812, he set sail for buenos aires and offered his services to the united provinces of the río de la plata, present-day argentina. after the battle of san lorenzo and time commanding the army of the north during 1814, he organized a plan to defeat the spanish forces that menaced the united provinces from the north, using an alternative path to the viceroyalty of peru. this objective first involved the establishment of a new army, the army of the andes, in cuyo province, argentina. from there, he led the crossing of the andes to chile, and triumphed at the battle of chacabuco and the battle of maipú (1818), thus liberating chile from royalist rule. then he sailed to attack the spanish stronghold of lima, peru.
on 12 july 1821, after seizing partial control of lima, san martín was appointed protector of peru, and peruvian independence was officially declared on 28 july. on 22 july 1822, after a closed-door meeting with fellow libertador simón bolívar at guayaquil, ecuador, bolívar took over the task of fully liberating peru. san martín unexpectedly left the country and resigned the command of his army, excluding himself from politics and the military, and moved to france in 1824. the details of the 22 july meeting would be a subject of debate by later historians.
san martín is regarded as a national hero of argentina and peru, and one of the liberators of spanish south america. the order of the liberator general san martín (orden del libertador general san martín), created in his honor, is the highest decoration conferred by the argentine government.
the colosseum or coliseum (/ˌkɒləˈsiːəm/ kol-ə-see-əm), also known as the flavian amphitheatre (latin: amphitheatrum flavium; italian: anfiteatro flavio [aɱfiteˈaːtro ˈflaːvjo] or colosseo [kolosˈsɛːo]), is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of rome, italy. built of travertine limestone, tuff (volcanic rock), and brick-faced concrete, it was the largest amphitheatre ever built at the time and held 50,000 spectators. the colosseum is situated just east of the roman forum. construction began under the emperor vespasian in ad 72 and was completed in ad 80 under his successor and heir, titus. further modifications were made during the reign of domitian (81–96). these three emperors are known as the flavian dynasty, and the amphitheatre was named in latin for its association with their family name (flavius).
the colosseum could hold an estimated 50,000 to 80,000 spectators during phases of its various renovations over the centuries, having an average audience of some 65,000;  it was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles (for only a short time as the hypogeum was soon filled in with mechanisms to support the other activities), animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on classical mythology. the building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. it was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a christian shrine.
although substantially ruined because of earthquakes, thieves, and stone-robbers, the colosseum is still an iconic symbol of imperial rome and is listed as one of the new7wonders of the world. it is one of rome's most popular tourist attractions and also has links to the roman catholic church, as each good friday the pope leads a torchlit "way of the cross" procession that starts in the area around the colosseum. in 2018, it was the most popular tourist attraction in the world, with 7.4 million visitors.
the colosseum is also depicted on the italian version of the five-cent euro coin.
ipinahiwatig nito ay tayo gumagawa ng sariling buhay o disusyon natin sa atin nakasalalay ang lipunang ating ginagalawan
ang epekto nito sa ating kapaligiran ay hindi maganda kung patuloy tsyong magtatspon ng basura sa ilog. dapat myron tayong disiplina sa sarili gawin ang di nsbubulok at nabubulok na psmaraan
ekonomiko at pampolitikal na kalagayan ng...