orpheus, son of apollo and the muse calliope, grows up in thrace, a land long noted for the purity and richness of its divine gift of song. his father presents him with a lyre and teaches him to play it. so lovely are the songs of orpheus that the wild beasts follow him when he plays, and even the trees, the rocks, and the hills gather near him. it is said his music softens the composition of stones.
orpheus charms eurydice with his music, but hymen brings no happy omens to their wedding. his torch smokes so that tears come to their eyes. passionately in love with his wife, orpheus becomes mad with grief when eurydice dies. fleeing from a shepherd who desires her, she steps upon a snake and dies from its bite.
heartbroken, orpheus wanders over the hills composing and singing melancholy songs of memory for the lost eurydice. finally he descends into the underworld and makes his way past the sentries by means of his music. approaching the throne of proserpine and hades, he sings a lovely song in which he says that love brings him to the underworld. he complains that eurydice was taken from him before her time and if they will not release her, he will not leave hades. proserpine and hades cannot resist his pleas. they agree to set eurydice free if orpheus will promise not to look upon her until they safely reach the upperworld.
the music of orpheus is so tender that even the ghosts shed tears. tantalus forgets his search for water;
grendel is originally found in the poem beowulf, which is contained in the nowell codex. grendel, being cursed as the descendant of the biblical cain, is "harrowed" by the sounds of singing that come every night from the mead-hall of heorot built by king hrothgar. he is unable to bear it anymore and attacks heorot.