Germany, Britain, Italy.
“cultural evolution” is the idea that human cultural change––that is, changes in socially transmitted beliefs, knowledge, customs, skills, attitudes, languages, and so on––can be described as a darwinian evolutionary process that is similar in key respects (but not identical) to biological/genetic evolution. more specifically, just as darwin described biological/genetic evolution as comprising three key components––variation, competition (or selection), and inheritance––cultural change also comprises these same phenomena. yet while cultural evolution can be described as darwinian in this sense, the details of the processes (e.g., how variation is generated, or how information is transmitted) are likely to be different in the cultural case compared to the details of biological/genetic evolution. bearing these differences in mind, cultural evolution researchers have taken many of the same methods, tools, and concepts that biologists have developed to explain biological diversity and complexity and used them to explain similar diversity and complexity in cultural systems. these include phylogenetic methods to reconstruct “macroevolutionary” historical relations between cultural traits (e.g., languages or tools),
uhm, maybe memes? i don't really know.