Yes, you can trace the father of the calves.
Cow 1 will have red calves; Cow 2 will have roan calves; Cow 3 will have red and roan calves.
The appearance of an animal (or any other form of life) is considered its phenotype (think ph = physical). An animal's genotype is its genetic make-up (think gen = genetic). Black is the phenotype of a calf with at least one black (B) allele. Red is the phenotype of a calf with two red (bb) alleles.