Chemical bonding in chemistry is the attraction of two or more atoms to form a compound. Chemical bonding also is possible from one compound to another compound. There are three types of common chemical bonding in chemistry: ionic bond, covalent bond and metallic bond. Ionic bond is the bonding of cations and anions due to the attraction positive charged and negative charges atoms in which one atom loses electron and the other atom gains electron. Covalent bond is the bonding of non-metal atoms by sharing electrons. Metallic bond is the bonding of metallic compound through ocean of electrons.
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in science 10 unit 1 module 1 activity 1, the title of the activity is "finding the center". the location of the hypothetical earthquake with the given data presented in the activity is in cebu city. we can find the earthquake epicenter using triangulation method. step 1, obtain record from the three seismic recording station. step 2, determine the time difference in the arrival time of p-wave and s-wave. step 3, compute for the distance of the epicenter from each seismological station using the formula d= td/ 8 seconds × 100. step 4, use triangulation method to find the earthquake epicenter.
solving for distance (d = td/8 s × 100)
d = 44.8 s / 8 s × 100 = 560 km
d = 32 s / 8 s × 100 = 400 km
d = 38.4 s / 8 s × 100 = 480 km
recording station time difference (s) distance from station in (km)
batangas 44.8 seconds 560 km
puerto princesa 32 seconds 400 km
davao 38.4 seconds 480 km
location of the epicenter using triangulation method is cebu city.
is the area on the surface of the earth which is directly above the focus in which the origin of earthquake occur. focus is the origin of slippage that produces earthquake, directly above on it is the epicenter. since the focus is under the crust and we cannot see it on the surface, we put a reference on it on the surface for us know that earthquake occurs in this area and we called it as epicenter
slippage along the fault or the plate boundary, releases tremendous amount of energy which causes vibration on the surface of the earth which is commonly known as earthquake.
types of earthquake
tectonic earthquake is the result of the movement of the plate which produces tremendous amount of energy that travels in all direction away from the epicenter causing shaking on the surface.
volcanic earthquake occurs due to the volcanic activity of erupting volcanoes. volcanic activity due to the rising of magma on the surface of the earth causes shaking in surrounding areas known as volcanic earthquake.
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types of seismic waves produce during earthquake
body waves can travel in the interior of the earth known as primary wave and secondary wave. primary wave is the fastest to travel and it can travel in both solid and liquid medium. secondary wave travel's slower than primary wave and it can only travel in solid not in liquid. the information provided by body waves gives ideas on what made up the inner layer of the earth.
surface wave on the other hand is composed of love wave and rayleigh wave. love wave is faster than rayleigh wave but, it causes majority of the damage on the surface of the earthquake. love wave moves the ground in a side to side horizontal motion, like that of a snake's causing the ground to twist which is the main reason why it causes more damage compared to the rest of the waves released during earthquake. on the other hand, rayleigh wave rolls along the ground just like a wave rolls across the ocean.
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studying earthquake's epicenter is one of the basis of the scientist in dividing the earth's lithosphere into several segments called plates. majority of the earthquake occur the plate boundary.
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